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29.12.1971 N 576 " "

( 5 2006 )

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           -  
                                   
                                
                       29  1971 . N 576
                                   
                 "  
            
              "
   
       1.        
             "   
                    
               
   " ().
       2.   -  , 
         ,
                   ,
   ,                   
   ,        -
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      "   5    
           
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       4.      " N 218   
   ,          
                    ",
                14
    1959 .
   
                                                               
                                                             .
   
   
   
   
   
   
                                                            
                                            
                                            29  1971 . N 576
   
                              
                 
               
                        
   
                          1.  
   
         1.        
                
             
        21  1927 .    ,
       .
        2.     :
       )     ,  
     ;
       )       ,     
    ;
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   ;
       )      
      ;
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         ;
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        3.   :
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     ;
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        .
          4.             
             
               
       ,    
   .
        5.     , 
     ( , )     
   (, ).
        6.       :
       -    ,       
     () ( N 4, 5, 6 <*>);
   ------------------------------------
       <*>  N 2, 3, 5, 6, 7  .
   
       -         ,    
       ( N 1  2);
       -     ( N 3).
          ,            
                
    ( N 7).
          7.               
            
   ,      .
   
                   2.   
                       
   
                           .  
   
         8.       
     ,     ,      
     ,      ,    
            (
       ,  ),  
                  
   .
        9.      :
       -    ( , ,    ,
   ,           
   );
       -           
   (,     ..) ,    
     ;
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    .
                     
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         :
       -       ()     
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    .
                   
       (   )  
    .
         10.       
        (),     
    ()    -  .
        11.        1/1000.
        12.      
       (  )   
    .
   
   -------------------------------T---------------------------------
                                  
                                    
   +------------------------------+---------------------------------+
                 57                              50               
                 82                              75               
                108                             100               
                133                             125               
                159                             150               
                194                             175               
                219                             200               
                273                             250               
                325                             300               
                377                             350               
                426                             400               
                478                             450               
                529                             500               
                630                             600               
                720                             700               
                820                             800               
                920                             900               
               1020                            1000               
   L------------------------------+----------------------------------
   
         13.         
             
         .          
     .
        14. ,   ,   .
         15.          
   .
           ,  ,    
   ,       
               
     ( N 6).
         16.   ()   ,
         ,       
   ,            
   ,        ,      
        :
       )       
                 ,
     100 (.  N 1);
       )        ,         
             ,      
   ()  ,   ,  
   ,                  
            
         ,    
   100  (    ,  30 - 35% (  N
   2)).
            :
       1.   - 40 .
       2.   , ,   
   - 50 .
       3.     - 50 .
       4.  ,         ,
   ,  - 80 .
       (                
              
      8  1970 . N 123.)
         1.        ,
          15    
       40 .
   
       15
       -- x 100 = 38%.
       40
   
         2.           
     ,       
   45  ,        ,  
           15 ,      
             -  50  .  
        :
   
         45
       ------- x (100 - 30) = 53%.
       45 + 15
   
                         .  
   
          17.            
         :
       -     -  ,   -
    ( );
       -    -  ,    -  
    ( );
       -   ,      
        ,  -      (
   );
       -   -  3  ( );
       -       -      
     ,        
      -  (    
   9  1970 . N 204).
          18.   ,             
    ,    1:500  1:1000.
            ,    
         ,  ,     ,
   ,  (: 2  V = 12000).
          ()   .
                     
     ,              
         ,       
   ( N 2).
         ,        ,  
            
      .
         19.        
          ,   ,  
          -  .
       :
   
        ---           l = 110,0           ---
       | o | ___________________________ | o |
        ---  ---------------------------  ---
                  2d = 100 + 2d = 75
   
         20.         
       ,              
   ,        1:25    1:50
   ( N 3).
              
     ,       ,    
    :
       -       -     ,      -
   ,     ,     
    ();
       -       -    
   .
            .
         21.      
       ,          :    
   ,    ,  , ,  ,
              ,    
         .      
             
   ( N 3).
         22.         
   ( N 1).
         23.      
    .
   
                        
   
          24.               
                  
     :
       )           
               
         ;
       )          
                  
                    
                 
            (       ).
         ,        
     "";
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      .          (   )
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     "".
   
                             
   
         25.       
               
     .
        26.   :
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   ;
       -       ;
       -        ,    
     ( ).
         27.        ,  
     ,      ,  
        .
         28.    ,   
   ,    ,    
   .            
         5%.  ,  
                  ,
     .
   
                       
   
         29.            
               
   .
           ,        ,
              .     
     ,         
             ,  
        .
             
                       
   .
         30.           
      ,   .
         31.              
   ,    ;    ,
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          ,   
         12 .
          32.             
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         33.       
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         34.        
       .
                      
         ,    
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         35.              
             
             
   .
   
                                                             
                                       
                                               
                                                           .
   
   
   
   
   
   
                                                         N 1
   
          -  
   
                          ( )
   
                      
   
                       N ______________
   
                           
           ___________  ___________ N ________
        _______________________________________ (, )
         ___________________________ N ____________________
                ( , )
   
         (.) ____________________  ________________
   
                           I.  
   
   ----T-------------------------------------T-------T----T----T----
    N                          . -19__19__19__
   /                                                 
   +---+-------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+
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        II.     ,
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               III.    
                           
   
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   L------+-----+--------+-------+--------+-------+---------+--------
   
   
   
   
   
   
                                                         N 4
   
                                  
   
               - 
   
   __________________________________   
   __________________________________________________________________
   
                             
                 ______________________________
                         (  )
   
           _____________________________________________
           (.) ______________________________________
           (.) ______________________________________
   
                                            N ________________
                                            N ____________
   
                                            
                                        
                                     _____________ N ______________
   
                   1.   
   
   ( N ___________)                   _________________
   
   ------T-------------T-----------------T--------T-----------------
     -, -   ,    
   - -    -
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           ,    -           
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              II.    - . 
   
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    -----            
                                     
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                  III.   - . 
   
   -----T---T----------------------------T-----T-----------------T----------T-----T---------T--T--T--
   - -                   -            - -          
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    -         -  -  - -   ---  --      
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   +----+---+---+------+-----+---+----+--+-----+------+-----+----+-----+----+-----+----+----+--+--+--+
                                                                                 
   L----+---+---+------+-----+---+----+--+-----+------+-----+----+-----+----+-----+----+----+--+--+---
   
                          IV.  
   
    _______________________________________________________
    ____________________________________________________
     () _______________________________________
       ) ___________________________________________________________
       ) ___________________________________________________________
       ) ___________________________________________________________
       ) ___________________________________________________________
   
         V.        
                     (,   ..)
   
   ---------T------------T------------------T-------T------T--------
       -     
         (. ) ()  (. )
                                         
   +--------+------------+------------------+-------+------+--------+
      1          2             3            4     5      6    
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   +--------+------------+------------------+-------+------+--------+
                                                              
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   +--------+------------+------------------+-------+------+--------+
                                                              
   +--------+------------+------------------+-------+------+--------+
                                                              
   L--------+------------+------------------+-------+------+---------
   
             VI.    
                           
   
    ________   __________   ____________
     __________    ___________
   
   ----T-----------T--------T------T------T------T------T---T-------------T----------
    N - ---  -- %       
   / - -               
        - -          %. 7 x . 8+----------+
         -  ---   -------------  %  
                   (-      -          100     +----T-----+
                 (-,          -                -    
                 , --      -                      --
                 -  ,         -                     
                 , -                                       
                                     -                          
                 ) ..)             -                          
                                                                      
   +---+-----------+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   1       2        3      4     5     6     7    8       9       10  11  
   +---+-----------+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   1                                                            
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
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   2  )                                                            
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      ) -                                                          
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   3  --                                                          
      - - +--------+------+                                           
                                                                   
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           -                                                          
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           -                                                         
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           -                                                          
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           -                                                         
             +--------+------+                                           
                                                                         
   +---+-----+-----+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   4                                                                 
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
   +---+-----------+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   5                                                                  
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
   +---+-----T-----+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   6  - -                                                         
          +--------+------+                                           
                                                                         
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           -                                                         
             +--------+------+                                           
                                                                         
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   7                                                            
          +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
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   8  --                                                         
      -                                                          
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      --                                                         
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      - -                                                         
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      - +-----+--------+------+                                           
       -                                                         
                                                                      
           -                                                         
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           -                                                         
           -                                                          
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           -                                                         
                                                                      
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           -                                                          
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   9                                                                
           +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
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   +---+-----------+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
                         :100   X           X               X        
   L---+-----------+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+------
   
       % ,   100,  :
   
                       (. 9) x 100
                     ---------------------------- =
                           (. 7)
   
            VII.    
                       
   
     __________   _____________  ________________
     _________    _____________________
   
   ----T-----------T--------T------T------T------T------T---T-------------T----------
    N - ---  -- %       
   / - -               
        - -          %. 7 x . 8+----------+
         -  ---   -------------  % 
                   (-      -          100     +----T-----+
                 (-,          -                -    
                 , --      -                      --
                 -  ,         -                     
                 , -                                       
                 )                                                  
                         ..)                                            
   +---+-----------+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   1       2        3      4     5     6     7    8       9       10  11  
   +---+-----------+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   1                                                            
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
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   +---+-----------+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   2  )                                                            
       +--------+------                                           
                                                                   
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      ) -                                                          
            +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
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   +---+-----T-----+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   3  --                                                          
      - - +--------+------+                                           
                                                                   
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           -                                                          
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           -                                                         
             +--------+------+                                           
                                                                         
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           -                                                          
           - +--------+------+                                           
           -                                                         
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   +---+-----+-----+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   4                                                                 
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
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   5                                                                  
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
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   6  - -                                                         
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           -                                                         
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   7                                                            
          +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
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   8  --                                                         
      -                                                          
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      --                                                         
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       -                                                         
                                                                      
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           -                                                         
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           -                                                         
                                                                      
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           -                                                          
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   9                                                                
           +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
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                         :100   X           X               X        
   L---+-----------+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+------
   
       % ,   100,  :
   
                       (. 9) x 100
                     ---------------------------- =
                           (. 7)
   
           VIII.    
                       
   
    ___________   _____________   _______________
     ____________    __________________
   
   ----T-----------T--------T------T------T------T------T---T-------------T----------
    N - ---  -- %       
   / - -               
        - -          %. 7 x . 8+----------+
         -  ---   -------------  % 
                   (-      -          100     +----T-----+
                 (-,          -                -    
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                 , -                                       
                 )                                                  
                         ..)                                            
   +---+-----------+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   1       2        3      4     5     6     7    8   9           10  11  
   +---+-----------+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   1                                                            
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
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   3  --                                                          
      - - +--------+------+                                           
                                                                   
                +--------+------+                                           
                                                                         
           +-----+--------+------+                                           
           -                                                          
           -  +--------+------+                                           
           -                                                         
             +--------+------+                                           
                                                                         
           +-----+--------+------+                                           
           -                                                          
           - +--------+------+                                           
           -                                                         
             +--------+------+                                           
                                                                         
   +---+-----+-----+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   4                                                                 
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
   +---+-----------+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   5                                                                  
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
   +---+-----T-----+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   6  - -                                                         
          +--------+------+                                           
                                                                         
           +-----+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
           -                                                         
             +--------+------+                                           
                                                                         
   +---+-----+-----+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   7                                                            
          +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
   +---+-----T-----+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
   8  --                                                         
      -                                                          
      - +-----+--------+------+                                           
      --                                                         
      - -                                                          
      -                                                            
      -  +-----+--------+------+                                           
      - -                                                         
        -                                                         
      -                                                            
      - +-----+--------+------+                                           
       -                                                         
                                                                      
           -                                                         
           -                                                         
                                                                    
           +-----+--------+------+                                           
                                                                    
           +-----+--------+------+                                           
           -                                                         
           -                                                          
           -                                                         
                                                                    
           +-----+--------+------+                                           
                                                                    
           +-----+--------+------+                                           
           -                                                         
                                                                      
           +-----+--------+------+                                           
           -                                                          
           -                                                         
                                                                      
           +-----+--------+------+                                           
                                                                    
           +-----+--------+------+                                           
                                                                         
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   9                                                                
           +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
                 +--------+------+                                           
                                                                          
   +---+-----------+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+-----+
                         :100   X           X               X        
   L---+-----------+--------+------+------+------+------+---+-------------+----+------
   
       % ,   100,  :
   
                       (. 9) x 100
                     ---------------------------- =
                           (. 7)
   
                  IX.   
                           
   
   ----T----------T------T------T----T------T------T------T----T------T------T------T----T------
    N -      ---      ---      ---
   / -+------+   -   +------+   -   +------+   -   
                      
       ______-    -  ______-    -  ______-    -  
                              -              -                -
                                                                          
   +---+----------+------+------+----+------+------+------+----+------+------+------+----+------+
   1                                                                    
   +---+----------+------+------+----+------+------+------+----+------+------+------+----+------+
   2                                                                        
      -                                                                  
                                                                                
   +---+----------+------+------+----+------+------+------+----+------+------+------+----+------+
   3                                                                    
   +---+----------+------+------+----+------+------+------+----+------+------+------+----+------+
   4                                                                         
   +---+----------+------+------+----+------+------+------+----+------+------+------+----+------+
   5                                                                          
   +---+----------+------+------+----+------+------+------+----+------+------+------+----+------+
   6                                                                        
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   7                                                                    
                                                                            
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   8  -                                                                    
                                                                         
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   9                                                                        
                                                                            
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   10 :          100   X               100   X               100   X         
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   1                                                                    
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   2                                                                        
      -                                                                  
                                                                                
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   3                                                                    
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   4                                                                         
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   5                                                                          
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   6                                                                        
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   7                                                                    
                                                                            
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   8  -                                                                    
                                                                         
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   9                                                                        
                                                                            
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   10 :          100   X               100   X               100   X         
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           X.    
                         
   
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    N -N    N   --            - -- %  -
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    1   2     3   4    5    6    7     8    9  10111213  14   15   16  17  18  
   +---+------+-----+----+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+--+--+--+--+------+-----+-----+---+-----+
                                                                               
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   L---+------+-----+----+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+--+--+--+--+------+-----+-----+---+------
   
              XI.    
   
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   -      ---      ---      ---
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               =          -  =          -    =          -
                                                                       
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   -                                                                  
                                                                             
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   -                                                                    
                                                                      
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   :          100   X               100   X               100   X         
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               =          -  =          -  =          -
                                                                         
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   -                                                                  
                                                                             
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   -                                                                    
                                                                      
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   :          100   X               100   X               100   X         
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    -                                                                    
    -                                                                  
   ,                                                                       
                                                                         
   L----------+------+------+----+------+------+------+----+------+------+------+----+-------
   
             XII.    
   
   ----T-----T-----T----T-----T-----T---------------------T-----T-----T-----T---T-----
   -- N    N   --   --- %  -
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                                           -        - 
                                                     -      
                                                    - .          
                                                    )                
   +---+-----+-----+----+-----+-----+------+-----+--+--+--+-----+-----+-----+---+-----+
    1   2    3   4    5    6    7     8  9 1011 12   13   14  15  16  
   +---+-----+-----+----+-----+-----+------+-----+--+--+--+-----+-----+-----+---+-----+
                                                                      
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   L---+-----+-----+----+-----+-----+------+-----+--+--+--+-----+-----+-----+---+------
   
         XIII.    ()  
   
   ----T------T-----T--------T----T-----T----T----T-----T-----T-----T---T-----
   --- -N    N   - -- - %  -
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       ---(. - -   ---
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      -         -                           
                                                - 
                     ()                           -      
                                                             
   +---+------+-----+----+---+----+-----+----+----+-----+-----+-----+---+-----+
                                                                
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                     XIV.   ( .)
   
   -----T---------------T---------------T---------------T---------------
                                  
   -                                            
    +-------T-------+-------T-------+-------T-------+-------T-------+
   - -- -- -- -- 
   -  --  --  --  -
                   
   +----+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
                                                               
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   +----+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
                                                               
   L----+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
   
   "__" ____________ 19__ . : _______________ /____________/
   
   "__" ____________ 19__ . : _______________ /____________/
   
   "__" ____________ 19__ .  : _________ /____________/
   
                XV.    
   
   -----------T-----------------T-----------------T-----------------
    -  "__" ____ 19__ ."__" ____ 19__ ."__" ____ 19__ .
                                                      
   +----------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
                                                      
   +----------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
                                                        
   +----------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
                                                       
                                                            
   L----------+-----------------+-----------------+------------------
   
                         
   
       1.                
            
               
    .
                
     (      
   31  1951 ).
       2.     -     
            
         ,        -
     .
       ,     , 
       (       12
    1962 . N 1497).
   
   

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